Back Propagation
In machine learning, short for "backward propagation of errors." A standard method of training artificial neural networks. This method helps to calculate the gradient of a loss function with respect to all the weights in the network. A widely used algorithm for training feedforward neural networks. Often used loosely to refer to how a learning algorithm works.

The return movement of a transportation vehicle from the direction of its destination especially transporting a shipment back over part or all of the route. Increasing backhauls improves asset utilization and productivity while reducing waste. 

Balance-on-Hand (BOH)
The quantity of inventory on hand, physically present in storage, and available for use. This quantity is used to determine Days Inventory Outstanding (DIO) and replenishment needs.

Balance Sheet
A USA financial statement reporting a company's assets, liabilities, and shareholders' equity at a specific point in time. Provides a basis for computing rates of return.

A minimum or starting point used for comparisons.

Base Rate
The rate charged by the carrier to perform basic transportation services.

A quantity or consignment of goods produced at one time. In manufacturing, a quantity to be produced in one production run. In computing, a set of data or jobs to be processed in a single program run. Batches help minimize the repetitive tasks and time associated to set up.

A generic term that is used in order aggregation to define an order forecast or order that will be analyzed for aggregation.

Best Fit
A Load Builder policy that only aggregates orders on a day, does not pull in days and minimizes items split across multiple loads.

A bid refers to the rate the carrier has offered to a shipper as part of a proposal or quotation.

Bill of Lading (BOL)
1) The individual number assigned to the Bill of Lading given by the carrier to the shipper that acknowledges receipt of the goods in the shipment.
2) A document carried from goods origin to goods destination that certifies cargo details. Bills of Lading generally include commodity description, number of pieces, total weight, and any special conditions of the cargo.

Blanket Order
A customer order, placed with its supplier, defining items, date ranges, quantity limits, and pricing when there is a recurring need for expendable goods. A blanket order helps a customer reduce inventories and avoids the administrative expense of processing frequent purchase orders.

Blind Cycle Count
An inventory cycle count process where the expected inventory quantity in the location is not known by the person counting.

An unexpected, minor, and typically temporary deviation from a general trend.

A means of making certain times or dock doors unavailable for the scheduling of appointments. The block may be entered for internal reasons (holidays, meetings, inventory) or to accommodate standing appointments. See also Standing Block.

A digital ledger in which transactions made in bitcoin or another cryptocurrency are recorded chronologically and publicly.

See Balance-on-Hand, Buffer-on-Hand.

Bottom Line Up Front (BLUF)
An acronym for a precise and powerful standard of military communication. Precision is attained by beginning a message with the bottom line so the reader immediately gets the most important information first.

Broadcast Tender
A tender that is sent out to more than one carrier simultaneously.


Bucketized Order Forecast

The inventory of an item at a location. The buffer represents the quantity and rules associated with an item at a site.

Buffer Lane
The logical link representing a source site for a given item at a site, or simply, the lane between two buffers. Also used to represent the priority of allocation for an item from a given ship-from site. Contains information regarding Order Lead Time (OLT), minimum order, maximum order, and other replenishment factors.

Buffer On Hand (BOH)

Buffer Stock
Stock held to reduce the negative effects (stockout costs) of an unusually large usage of stock.

Bullwhip Effect
A distribution channel phenomenon where demand forecasts and poor visibility yield supply chain inefficiencies. Refers to increasing swings in inventory in response to shifts in consumer demand as one moves further up the supply chain.

Buyer Review Lead Time (BRLT)
Time allowed for buyer review after an order is generated by one network. Once the BRLT is passed, the order must be transmitted to the supplier. See Forecast Creation Lead Time.

Business Log Level

Business Intelligence (BI)
Strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis and management of business information to support decision making.

Buyer Planner
Buyer role name that receives the shipment.